Neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s diseases, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimers’s disease , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Spinal Muscular Atrophy effect greater than 7 million Americans. The lack of effective therapies for these neurological diseases creates an enormous financial and emotional burden on society. Neurodegenerative disease are characterized by progressive loss of neuronal structure, neuronal numbers and neuronal function in the brain and spinal cord. Treatment objectives of stem cell therapies is targeted on cellular replacement and or environmental enrichment. New stem cells may integrate and synapse with a damaged neural network. Alternatively, newly introduced stem cells may provide “support” for damaged host neurons by producing neurotrophic and neuroprotective growth factors.